Very little is known about the history of Alexei "Lex" Luthor before he rose to power and took control of several minor European nations prior to World War II through his super-scientific machinations. He intended to plunge all of the European countries into war starting with the small countries of Galonia and Toran, and used his scientific genius to sabotage a peace conference, but was defeated by Kal-L, the hero known as Superman.
Luthor escaped and later plagued Superman with a gigantic Kryptonite meteor after learning about Superman's weakness from Dan Rivers. Unable to defeat Superman, Alexei took solace in publicly revealing Superman's weakness to the world, causing trouble for Kal-L from other various foes.
Luthor would return time and time again with elaborate plans to kill Superman, but was defeated each time. One of the most notable of these schemes was when the scientist took control over the artifact named Power Stone. This jewel of seemingly mystical nature could drain the powers from Superman to Luthor, and turn the scientist in a giant. Happily, the Man of Steel was able to trick the villain and take away the gem.
Later in his career, Luthor would learn of the Multiverse and team up with his Earth-One counterpart Alexis "Lex" Luthor in an attempt to conquer Earth-Three. Recruiting Earth-Three's primary villain, Ultraman (an evil counterpart to their Supermen) to aid them in conquering Earth-Three, Alexei and Alexis Luthor were defeated by their own Earth-Three counterpart, Alexander Luthor, who became Earth-Three's first and only super-hero.
Luthor would continue on his private quest for world domination of Earth-Two until he was recruited by Brainiac during The Crisis on Infinite Earths. Upon confronting the Earth-One Lex Luthor, who had been selected over him by Brainiac as field commander of their amassed gathering, Alexei stated to all present "Wait one second! Who appointed that second-rate lab-rat our spokesman? I'm the Luthor of Earth-2! My genius is far greater than his! You don't need him!", to which Brainiac replied, "You speak logically, Luthor! But I assembled this group! The decision for leader is mine! But you are correct. We do not need two Luthors!" And Brainiac immediately disintegrated Alexei Luthor on the spot, leaving the Earth-One version the only Luthor present. Following the end of the Crisis, Alexei Luthor was eliminated from history, and is no longer remembered by anyone on New Earth.
- Mental Illness: Luthor's hatred for Superman surpasses the edge of madness. While his Earth-One counterpart wanted only to destroy Superman, Alexei had no restraints to destroy both Earth-One and Earth-Two to consolidate the same attempt. 
Luthor had various devices of his own creation, such as a machine which could project his image and voice over long distance on a surface.
- This version of Luthor, including all history and corresponding appearances, was erased from existence following the collapse of the original Multiverse in the 1985–86 Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series. Even though versions of the character may have since appeared, this information does not apply to those versions.
- Though Alexei Luthor had a similar appearance and demeanor in his 1940 debut (where he was known only as "Luthor"), subsequent appearances of Luthor throughout the 40's and 50's portrayed him as completely bald. When it became necessary in the 1960's to distinguish the Golden Age Luthor from the one then appearing in DC Comics, the character was retroactively assigned many of the exploits of his bald successor, as well as the first name "Alexei." The Golden Age Luthor was a far more blood-thirsty character than his successors. Whereas Earth-One's Luthor preferred humiliating his adversary to prove his genius, Alexei Luthor sought only Superman's death.
- It would later be established that Golden Age stories that contradicted Earth-Two history occurred on other Earths such as Earth-Two-A.
- An unnnamed mad scientist with a striking resemblance to Luthor appeared in the Radio Squad story in More Fun Comics #23 (three years before Action Comics #23). As almost nothing is known about Luthor's background before his first appearance, this could be him.
- In the first two Ultra-Humanite stories (in Action Comics #13 and Action Comics #14), the Ultra-Humanite has a red-haired assistant who looks a bit like Luthor. Some comics researchers have theorized that this may be Luthor before he set out on his own career of super-villainy.
- 57 Appearances of Alexei Luthor (Earth-Two)
- 6 Images featuring Alexei Luthor (Earth-Two)
- 2 Quotations by or about Alexei Luthor (Earth-Two)
- Character Gallery: Alexei Luthor (Earth-Two)
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